Money added to the purse of a race by the racing association or a breeding or other fund to the amount paid by owners in nomination, eligibility, entry and starting fees.
1) All Standardbreds become a year older on Jan 1st regardless of when they were born during the year; The age of the horse.
A person empowered to transact business for a stable owner, or empowered to buy and sell horses for an owner or breeder.
When a horse extends himself to the utmost.
A horse officially entered for a race, but not permitted to start unless scratches below a specified number reduce the field.
A horse that finishes out of the money. .
A race for 2-year-olds.
Stable area, dormitories and often times a track kitchen, and recreation area for stable employees. Also known as "backstretch" for its proximity to the stable area.
1) Straight portion of the far side of the racing surface between the turns. 2) See backside. 3) Also stable area.
Strips of cloth wound around the lower part of a horse's legs for support or protection against injury.
A horseshoe closed at the back to help support the frog and heel of the hoof, It is often worn by horses with quarter cracks or bruised feet.
A horse color that varies from a yellow-tan to a bright auburn. The mane, tail and lower portion of the legs are always black, except where white markings are present.
Bearing In (Or Out):
Deviating from a straight course.
A stainless steel, rubber or aluminum bar, attached to the bridle, which fits in the horse's mouth and is one of the means by which a driver exerts guidance and control.
A horse color which is black, including the muzzle, flanks, mane, tail and legs unless white markings are present.
Horses finishing so closely together they could be covered by a blanket.
A horse that bleeds during or after a workout or race due to a ruptured blood vessel.
Device to limit a horse's vision.
A bad step away from the starting gate, usually caused by the track surface breaking away from under a horse's hooves, causing it to duck its head or nearly go to his knees.
Sudden veering from a straight course, usually to the outside rail.
A poor race run directly following a career-best or near-best performance.
A type of tendonitis. The most common injury to the tendon is a strain or "bowed" tendon, so named because of the appearance of a bow shape due to swelling. Horses commonly re-injure the tendon when they go back into competition.
A horse that is racing on the rail and is surrounded by other horses in front, outside and behind it. A horse that is boxed in is held up and unable to gain a clear passage.
1) To train a young horse to wear a harness. Almost always done when the horse is a yearling. When a horse goes offstride. A harness horse competes at either a trot (diagonal gait) or pace (lateral gait). A break occurs when a horse goes offstride and into a gallop.
A horse, or driver winning the first race of its career.
When a horse suffers a potentially career-ending injury, usually to the leg; The horse suffered a breakdown. The horse broke down.
Easing off on a horse for a short distance in a race to permit it to conserve it's energy.
A piece of equipment usually made of leather or nylon, which fits on a horse's head.
A short burst of speed during a race.
Short for phenylbutazone. a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication that is legal in many racing jurisdictions. Often known by the trade names Butazolidin and Butazone.
A projection on the heels of a horseshoe, similar to a cleat.
Call (Race Call):
Running position of horses in a race at various points.
Another term for a program of racing. For example, a person may refer to there being twelve races on the card, which simply means twelve races will be staged on that particular day.
Another term for sulky, or jog cart.
A driver, which does not train his or her own horses, and is engaged by other trainers to drive their horses.
He/she makes a simultaneous written record of how individual races are run and how each hors performs.
A statistical "picture" of a race (from which past performances are compiled), that shows the position and margin of each horse at designated points of call.
To suffer interference during a race, causing a horse to check up, or alter, its speed and/or path in a race.
Yellow-red, red-yellow to golden yellow horse with red main and tail.
A box in which claims are deposited before the race.
A race in which each horse entered is eligible to be purchased at a set price. Claims must be made before the race and only by licensed owners or their agents who are eligible to claim horses at said track..
The process by which a licensed person may purchase a horse entered in a designated race for a predetermined price. When a horse has been claimed, its new owner assumes title after the starting gate opens although the former owner is entitled to all purse money earned in that race.
The level of competition that a horse has been facing. Generally, the higher class level the bigger the purse and the stronger the level of competition.
A race of traditional importance.
A horse that runs best in the latter part of the race, coming from off the pace.
Generally, the turn on a racing oval that is closest to the clubhouse facility; usually the first turn after the finish line.
A horse, which is going easily or traveling without pressure in a race, usually in front.
1) The very special colorful suit worn by drivers/trainers. The drivers/trainers register their own colors and wear them every time they race. 2) Colors: bay, black, chestnut, dark bay or brown, gray, roan and white. See individual entries for definitions.
An ungelded (entire) male horse four-years-old or younger.
Class of horses in a race.
Condition Book (S):
A series of booklets issued by a racing secretary, which set forth conditions of races to be run at a particular racetrack.
The fitness level of a horse. For example, it may be described as peak racing condition or poor condition. Also the type of race horsemen can place their horses.
A race where eligibility is based on age, sex, money won, or races won. For example, "3-year-old colts that are non-winners of $10,000 lifetime or 4 races."
Persons identified with a horse, such as owner, trainer, or driver, and stable employees.
Restoring a horse to normal temperature, usually by walking.
Describes when a horse is racing with a horse in front of him, especially on the outside. Live cover occurs when a horse has an advancing horse in front of him, dull cover occurs when the cover horse does not advance.
A Standardbred gait flaw that occurs when one hoof strikes the hoof s whip, or leg on the opposite corner.
A dry and loose racing surface that breaks away under a horse's hooves.
Top portion of a racetrack.
Dark Bay Or Brown:
A horse color that ranges from brown with areas of tan on the shoulders, head and flanks, to a dark brown, with tan areas seen only in the flanks and/or muzzle. The mane, tail and lower portions of the legs are always black unless white markings are present.
A day on which no racing is conducted at a particular racetrack.
A situation in which the judges cannot separate two or more horses when judging the outcome of a race. These horses are declared as having crossed the finish line at the exact same time.
Racing surface lacking resiliency.
A position very close to the finish line in race.
Abbreviation for dead heat.
Change in order of finish by officials for an infraction of the rules.
1) A female horse. 2) A race for fillies, mares, or both.
A horse that is out of touch with the rest of the field at the end of the race. This is often referred to as finished distanced.
If a driver or trainer records two winners on a card, they are said to have recorded a winning double.
An abbreviation for disqualified.
A person driving a harness horse in a race.
A horse facing a lower class of rivals than he had been running against.
Qualified to start in a race, according to conditions.
The cost of nominating, entering or starting a horse in a stakes race.
Two or more horses owned by the same stable or (in some cases) trained by the same trainer and thus running as a single betting unit. Rules on entries vary from state to state.
Whip, blinkers, etc. Gear carried by a horse in a race.
Horseshoer, blacksmith. Also called a "platen".
Track condition with footing at its best. Dry and even.
The final list of horses, selected by the handicapper that will contest the race.
The first horse to make a move on the leader in a race, moving up on the outside.
A horse that is forced to move wide on the track (further away from the inside running rail), because of the actions of another runner.
How a horse has been racing. Generally, good form is defined as close up finishes in recent starts - bad form is poor finishes in recent starts.
Intermediate times recorded in a race, as at the quarter, half, three-quarters, etc. The "quarter time," for example, refers to the time after the first quarter-mile, not the first 25 percent of the race.
A pacer, which races without wearing hopples (which helps maintain it's gait) is known as a free-legged pacer.
A rested horse.
A horse whose running style is to attempt to get on or near the lead at the start of the race and to continue there as long as possible.
A condition of a racetrack where any moisture present is frozen.
Harness horses are divided into two distinct groups, pacers or trotters, depending on their gait when racing. The gait is the manner in which a horse moves its legs when running. The pacer is a horse with a lateral gait, whereas a trotter has a diagonal gait.
A horse that's brave, determined, or hard working.
How quickly a horse is able to leave from the starting gate.
The starting mechanism.
The equipment used by trotters and pacers.
Condition of the racetrack between fast and slow.
Winning at a class and moving up.
A horse color where the majority of the coat is a mixture of black and white hairs. The mane, tail and legs may be either black or gray unless white markings are present. Starting with foals of 1993, the color classifications gray and roan were combined as "roan or gray." See roan.
A person who cares for a horse in the stables.
Half of a mile.
Like a bridle, but lacking a bit. Used in handling horses around the stable.
Four inches. A horse's height is measured in hands and inches from the top of the shoulder (withers) to the ground, e.g., 15.2 hands are 15 hands, 2 inches.
The gear, which is used to attach the sulky to a horse, to carry the hopples and to enable the driver to steer the horse.
Head Of The Stretch:
Beginning of the straight run to the finish line.
A margin between horses. One horse leading another, by the length of its head.
1) A race in which more then one running is required to decide the winner.
The straps, which connect the front and rear legs on the same side of a horse. Most pacers wear hobbles to help balance their stride and maintain a pacing gait. The length of hobbles is adjustable and a trainer registers the length that best suits his or her horse. There are also trotting hobbles that work through a pulley system to help trotters maintain their gait.
The straight length of the track, nearest the spectators, heading toward the finish line. It is called this because it is the final part of the track a horse travels down on its way 'home' (or the finish line).
A male horse aged 5 years and over.
Area encompassed by the inner rail of the racetrack.
Judging officials may conduct an inquiry as a result of any incident which may have occurred during a race, to determine whether or not certain drivers and/or horses were responsible for the incident and whether they should receive due punishment.
Slow, easy gait.
The person who decides the official placings and margins for each race or trial. They are also responsible for deciding who the placegetters are in the event of a photo finish or developed print.
Two-year old horse.
The term used to describe a horse which is limping or has difficulty walking properly. Lameness is often caused by an injury or problem with one or more of a horse's feet and/or legs.
A medication for the treatment of bleeding.
The horse, which is out in front or leading during a race. This term may also be applied to a horse that most commonly wins races when in a leading position.
A measurement approximating the length of a horse, used to denote distance between horses in a race:
Harness racing uses this term instead of reins, but it means the same thing.
A horse on a loose line is one, which is allowed to run freely, without any pressure from the driver to speed up or slow down.
A race for horses, which have never won a race.
A horse that has not won a race. Also applied to a non-winning driver.
A race between just two horses.
A horse, which races well on an off track.
Unit of measurement. About the length of a horse's neck; a little less than a quarter of a length.
the starter or Stewards may declare a horse, which has failed to come within a reasonable distance of the mobile barrier, as a non-starter of the race. All bets placed on a horse which is later declared as a non-starter, are refunded.
Smallest advantage a horse can win by. Called a short head in Britain.
Claim of foul lodged by a driver.
An off track refers to a wet racing surface.
the stewards have confirmed final results of a race. Also used to denote a racing official.
On The Board:
Finishing among the first four.
On The Pace:
A horse, which is keeping up with the runner, which is determining the speed of the race. It means it's right up there with a good chance of winning.
On The Pylons:
A horse racing in a position next to the hub rail or pylons.
Abbreviation for off-track betting.
Out Of Position:
A horse that is not in its designated position at the start of a mobile event is deemed to have been out of position at the start.
This is the time taken to complete the distance of the race.
A race in which entries close a specific number of hours before running (such as 48 hours), as opposed to a stakes race for which nominations close weeks and sometimes months in advance.
A sheet published by the racing secretary's office listing the entries for an upcoming racing card.
The early fractions of a race, particularly the opening 1/4 mile and 1/2 mile. The pace of a race can affect how well certain horses are able to compete. For example, if a pacesetter is able to set a slow pace, horses that are far back early will have a particularly difficult time making up ground once the pace picks up in the latter stages of the race. Conversely, if the early pace is torrid, it will be harder for pacesetters to withstand the late challenges of closers who benefit from a relatively slow second half.
The horse that is running in front (on the lead).
This Standardbred gait features legs on the same side moving forward and backward at the same time. Pacers are sometimes called amblers or sidewheelers.
Official in charge of the paddock.
Area where the horses are saddled and paraded before post time.
This term describes a horse that is racing on the outside, normally for an extended period of time. Horses lose ground while racing on the outside and depending on the circumstances (the amount of time spent racing on the outside, the pace, etc) can be adversely affected by it.
A compilation in the program of a horse's record, including all pertinent data, used as a basis for handicapping.
A finish between two or more horses which is so close a still photograph must be used to determine the order of finish.
A person who buys a racehorse with the specific intention of re-selling it at a profit.
Boxed in, shut off. Running in a position with horses in front and alongside.
Horses going from paddock to starting gate past the stands in post position: Position of stall in starting gate from which a horse starts.
The position a horse leaves the starting gate from at the start of a race.
Designated time for a race to begin. .
In harness racing, a driver who's not fully licensed.
One whose services are not exclusively engaged by a single stable and who accepts horses from a number of owners.
A horse, which has finished a race, has pulled up. The term can also refer to the act of a driver stopping his horse from competing in a race, while that race is still in progress, for example, because of injury or broken equipment.
A horse that is pulling out in a race is one that is coming from the rail heading out wider on the track in an effort to secure a clear run.
Some horses get fired-up during a race and try to run faster than the tempo of the other runners. These horses are 'pulling'. Horses that pull will usually waste a lot of energy in the process, leaving little in reserve for the finish.
Pulled The Plugs:
Drivers who pull the plugs during a race are merely releasing the earplugs that have been in their horse's ears up until that time. Ear plugs can help keep a horse's mind on the job and help nervous horses stay calm leading up to and during part of the race. When released, the sudden exposure to more noise may help spur on the horse. .
The total monetary amount distributed after a race to the owners of the entrants who have finished in the (usually) top five positions.
1/4 of a mile.
A race in which a horse must go a mile below an established time standard to prove itself capable of competing in pari-mutuel races.
The description of a race while it is in process, which includes such things as the positions of the runners at different stages, any moves made by drivers, and any incidents that occur. A race is called or described by a race caller or announcer.
The entire day's race lineup makes up the race card.
Official who drafts conditions of races.
This is what the driver does when he asks his horse to save energy for a run later in the race.
When the first attempt at starting a harness race is nullified by the official in charge of the start. A restart of the race is called for.
A Standardbred's harness, protective equipment, and other gadgets designed to make him perform better, plus the manner in which it's fastened to him.
A cloth under the harness on which a horse's wagering number is displayed.
Process of familiarizing a horse with the starting gate and teaching it racing practices.
To be taken out of a race before it starts. Trainers usually scratch horses due to adverse track conditions or a horse's adverse health. A veterinarian can scratch a horse at any time.
A group of horses being exercised together.
A (usually sheepskin) roll that is secured over the bridge of a horse's nose to keep it from seeing shadows on the track and shying away from or jumping them.
The two long pieces that attach the sulky to the horse's harness.
Rope or strap attached to a halter or bridle by which a horse is led.
A horse who travels from where he's trained to race at another track.
A horse in need of more work or racing to reach winning form.
This occurs when a horse is stuck on the rail and loses position when outside horses advance past him.
Unable to improve position due to being surrounded by other horses.
Three-year-old horses. Called sophomores because age three is the second year of racing eligibility.
Some people use this word to describe only a horse whose legs are healthy and painless. Others consider a horse to be sound only if his legs are strong, his breathing is adequate, and his general health is good.
A generic term describing a barn where horses are brought for post-race testing. Tests may include saliva, urine and/or blood.
Areas, enclosures or places at a track used for the accommodation of horses competing at a meeting. Stables may also refer to the areas on a trainer's property or other property where their horses are accommodated.
The opposite to strung out. In a field, which is stacked up, the distances between the leader, rear horse and all other runners will be quite small.
A horse whose level of competition includes mostly stakes races.
A race for which the owner usually must pay a fee to run a horse. The fees can be for nominating, maintaining eligibility, entering and starting, to which the track adds more money to make up the total purse. Some stakes races are by invitation and require no payment or fee.
Finishing first, second or third in a stakes race.
A breed of horse, which participates in harness racing.
The person responsible for starting a harness race. In a mobile event, the starter controls the start of the race from the back of the mobile vehicle. The starter also decides when and if a recall should be declared.
A mechanical device, which allows each horse to begin a race at the same time.
A horse bred in a particular state and thus eligible to compete in races restricted to state-breds.
A horse moving up in class to meet better competition.
The persons appointed by the Racing Commission to assist in the control of racing and other matters related to the sport. They ensure all rules relating to racing and betting are observed and enforced. Stewards are required to regulate, control and inquire into and adjudicate on the conduct of officials, owners, trainers, drivers, persons attending to horses, at any event where licensed persons are involved.
Final straight: Portion of the racetrack to the finish.
A field of horses in a race in which the distances between the leader, and the other runners is quite great.
A Standardbred who races directly behind another, benefiting from less wind resistance.
When a horse refuses to extend itself.
Also known as the bike, the sulky is attached to the harness which carries the driver and which the horse pulls.
A driver or trainer, who is deemed, by the stewards, to have broken one or more of the rules of harness racing, may receive a suspension as punishment. A suspension means a driver cannot participate in any race and a trainer may not train for a set period of time.
Equipment used for racing and training a horse.
A horse who competes in claiming races is running for a tag. The tag is his claiming price.
A horse that drops so far back during a race that it is out of touch with the rest of the field.
A horse that is disqualified.
A permanent, indelible mark used to identify the horse.
A conformation flaw in which the front of the foot faces in and looks pigeon-toed, often causing the leg to swing outward during locomotion ("paddling").
A conformation flaw in which the front of the foot faces out, often causing the leg to swing inward during locomotion ("winging").
Strip of cloth-type material used to stabilize a horse's tongue to prevent it from "choking down" in a race or workout or to keep the tongue from sliding up over the bit, rendering the horse uncontrollable. Also known as a "tongue strap.".
A racing surface that favors a particular running style or position. For example, a track bias can favor either front-runners or closers.
The person responsible for looking after a horse and preparing it to race. A trainer must hold a license or permit to be entitled to train.
An individual horse's race, with specific reference to the difficulty (or lack of difficulty) the horse had during competition, e.g., whether the horse was repeatedly blocked or had an unobstructed run.
The normal mid-speed gait of four-legged animals. It features legs on opposite corners moving at the same time.
A slang term for harness racing in general. It also describes the gait of a "trotter".
Racing immediately behind another horse, thus using it as a windbreak trailing.. A driver may place his horse in a trailing position in order to save enough energy for a fast finish down the home straight.
Tying Up (Acute Rhabdomyolysis):
A form of muscle cramps that ranges in severity from mild stiffness to a life-threatening disease. A generalized condition of muscle fiber breakdown usually associated with exercise. The cause of the muscle fiber breakdown is uncertain. Signs include sweating, reluctance to move, stiffness and general distress.
UDRS/UTRS (Universal Driver/Trainer Rating System):
A method of determining that status of a driver or trainer based on the amount of wins, seconds, and thirds he/she has in relationship to the number of starts. The formula, as set by the United States Trotting Association, is below:
UDRS/UTRS = (Wins x 9) + (Places x 5) + (Shows x 3)....divided by (Starts x 9)
An implement used by the driver to spur on the horse in the run to the finish line. Drivers will tap their horse with the whip when they want them to accelerate. A driver may only use the whip in an elbow action: Upper arm action is not permitted. Most drivers use the whip on the sulky shaft.
The finish line of a race.
Area above the shoulder, where the neck meets the back.